Larynx is an important respiratory organ located below the throat and carries out the inhaled air into the windpipe, and the vocal cords are also placed in it. One part of the larynx (epiglottis) has an important function to prevent the bite to “fall” into the trachea. Given the proximity of the nose and throat it is often attacked by microorganisms that can cause inflammation – laryngitis. Throat diameter is small, especially in young children, and nearly every throat inflammation is accompanied by aggravated air flow.
Coughing is a regular side effect of laryngeal inflammation.
It is caused by damage to the mucous membrane, that is “bared down” due to the presence of viruses or bacteria and this causes the irritation of ends of small veins that are well tucked into intact mucosa. Irritated nerve endings trigger cough reflex, and this non-productive, persistent (dry) cough additionally damages the mucous membrane and already damaged vocal cords become more swollen.
When the reflex mechanism is initiated, first comes to deep inspirations (breath ins), then to the closure of glottis (vocal cords connecting), to the contractions of the expiratory muscles (the diaphragm) and then to the rapid spacing between vocal cords, accompanied by a rapid jet of air moving over 200 km / h. All this seems very dramatic: heavy breathing, sometimes it makes you fight for every breath, and it often causes hoarse and prolonged cough, and as a “rule” all of this occurs most commonly at night.
By definition, the cough reflex is an important defense mechanism by which the explosive expiration removes secretions and foreign bodies from the tracheobronchial tree. It can follow a number of different acute and chronic diseases. Cough has several functions. Most frequently it is an indicator of a disease, but also an important defense mechanism for “cleaning” of the airways. However, if it becomes ineffective, excessive or persistent, it can significantly affect the quality of life of patients in a negative way and lead to complications.
Specific treatment of cough involves eradication of its causes (eg infection), while non-specific antitussive therapy includes the application of antitussives in other words called symptomatic therapy. As a rule, cough is treated only if it is unproductive (dry) cough that bothers patients and can lead to complications, while with the productive (wet) cough expectorants and secretolytica and mainly applied (acetylcysteine carbocisteine, Ambroxol chloride, bromhexine).
Be sure to consult your doctor in choosing medications that suppress coughing.